Yumenguan Pass is located about 95 km northwest to Dunhuang City. It was built in Western Han Dynasty (206BC -24AD) as the crucial gateway from central China to the western regions. It was also an inevitable pass of the Silk Road. Silk and tea from Central China were exported abroad through this pass and fruits, the music and religion from western regions were transported to central China from this pass too.
HistoryYumenguan Pass was first built by the Emperor Wudi during the Western Han Dynasty (206BC -24AD). To resist the harassment of Xiongnu, a nationality lived in the western border of China, the Western Han Dynasty built four countries and two passes in hexi corridor area. Yumenguan is one of the two passes, the other is Yangguan Pass. This two passes were the points to rest and replenish water supplies on the ancient silk road.
Yumenguan Pass is also a post house for the important government officials and generals to change horses and get shelter. The jade from western regions was transported to central China from this pass, so got the name "Yumen(Jade Gate) Pass." Along with the Yangguan Pass, Yumenguan Pass functioned as a solid frontier pass and to ensure the smooth traffic on the Silk Road.
Yumenguan Pass is a part of the Great Wall of Han Dynasty. With an area of 600 square kilometers, the pass had a rectangular shape, also called Small Square City. The pass was built of rammed yellow earth and has two gates. There is a walkway and a special road for horses leading to the wall. There are several flag towers near the pass. When the enemy attacked, the soldiers use them to convey messages.
By the sixth century, the businessmen changed for the northern route via Hami, Yumenguan Pass was gradually abandoned.
In 1944, Chinese archaeologists discovered relics of Yumenguan Pass.
On June 22, 2014, the pass was successfully added to the World Heritage List.
Yumenguan Pass Photo
The relic of Yumenguan Pass was constructed with rammed earth. It is 10 meters high. The top is 3 meters wide and the bottom is 5 meters wide.
With an area of 600 square kilometers, it has two gates. Around the pass, the Great Wall of Han Dynasty is best preserved. Some beacon towers sparsely scattered in the desert.
- Yumenguan Pass Map
- Yumenguan Pass Tour
1. There is a big temperature difference between day and night in spring and autumn. It is windy and dusty occasionally. Please bring warm clothes to avoid catching a cold.
2. The sunshine is very strong in summer. You are advised to prepare effective prevent bask in things, such as sunscreen, lip balm, sunglasses, sun umbrellas, caps, etc.
3. It is dry in four seasons. bring more water.