Yanmenguan Pass is located in Dai Country, Xinzhou City of Shanxi Province. Also know as Yanmensai or Xixingguan, it is one of three outer passes alone the great wall. The other two are Ningwuguan Pass and Pianguan Pass. Yanmenguan Pass has an strategic importance. Many famous historical battles occurred here.
HistoryYanmenguan Pass is located on the summit of the Yanmen Mountain. Early in the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC - 476 BC), the King Wuling of Zhao established the Yanmen Country in this region for defense against the Inner Asian nomads. It fell into ruins because of the lack of repair in the Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368). At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907), a pass was constructed and called "Yanmenguan Pass".
The pass was then reconstructed in 1374 during the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644).
In 2001, Yanmenguan Pass was listed as a Key National Cultural Site under national protection.
Yanmenguan Pass Photo
Yanmenguan Pass is made up of Guancheng(Pass City), Wengcheng(Barbican), and Weicheng(Besieged City). The city wall of Guancheng is 10 meters high and 1 kilometer in circumference. The foundation was built with stone. There are crenels on the wall. The pass has three gates: the north gate, the west gate and the east gate. The north gate was built with brick and stone. Three Chinese characters "Yan Men Guan" are inscribed above the lintel in the front. An antithetical couplet is hanging beside the door. The west gate is inscribed with two characters "Di Li(favorable geographic position)". There is a temple on the west gate commemorating General Yang Liulang of the Northern Song (960-1127).
The east gate is inscribed with"Tian Xian(unbreakable stronghold)". A temple, named 'Jingbianci', was built outside of the east gate commemorating Li Mu, a famous army general during the Period of Warring States (475 - 221 BC).
In addition, three big stone walls, 25 small stone walls and 18 passes were built outside of the Yanmenguan Pass, forming a strong defence system. Nowadays, only a stone mast, a pair of stone lions, and a number of steles remain.
- Yanmenguan Pass Map
- Yanmenguan Pass Tour