Shanhaiguan Pass of the Great Wall
Introduction of Shanhaiguan Pass of the Great Wall
Shanhaiguan Pass, also called "Yuguan Pass", is located in the northeast of Qinhuangdao City. It was built in 1381 during the Ming Dynasty and was the most important pass of the Great Wall at that time. The pass was once a strong and powerful defense system, protecting the strategic passage between the north and northeast China. The city wall of Shanhaiguan Pass connects with the great wall stretching onto the Yanshan Mountains in the north and into the Bohai Sea in the south.
see Shanhaiguan Great Wall map
Shanhaiguan Pass was constructed in 1381 during the Ming Dynasty by General Xuda. Because it was built between mountain and sea, so called Shanhaiguan(mountain-sea-pass). General Qi Jiguang constructed a military city around the pass and made it one of the most heavily fortified passes in China. The pass protected the widest corridor between China and its strongest rival neighbors. It was considered as "the No.1 Pass". During the Qing Dynasty, Shanhaiguan Pass was referred to as the "Key to the Capital" for it position between Shenyang and Beijing. Shanhaiguan Pass witnessed many conflicts in the period of the Republic of China and World War II.
Shanhaiguan Pass is a small town built as a square, with a perimeter of around 4 kilometres. The city wall the great wall stretching onto the Yanshan Mountains in the north and into the Bohai Sea in the south. The wall is 14 meters high and 7 meters thick. The east, south and north sides are surrounded by the deep, wide moat. There are four main city gates and many defensive buildings. The most important gate is Zhendong Gate in the east wall. The arrow tower on the east gate is 13.7 meters higer with two floors. A plaque inscribed with the Chinese characters 'tian xia di yi guan' (the No.1 Pass under the Heaven) is hanging on the tower. The first floor is the of Great Wall Museum now. Standing on the second floor, visitors can have a full view of both inside and outside of the Shanhaiguan Pass. On the same axis with Zhendong Tower, there are four other towers, Weiyuan Tower, Jingbian Tower, Muying Tower and Linlu tower. These five towers form a strong protective screen guarding the Pass.
The Great Wall at Shanhaiguan stretches 26 kilometers long. closing the 10-kilometer gap between the Jiaoshan mountains and the sea in the south. So the section on Jiaoshan Mountain and the great wall into the Bohai Sea(called Laolongtou) are worth to visit. In addition, travelers can visit the Temple of Meng Jiang Nu, climbing Changshoushan Mountain or go boating on Yansai Lake.
1. Take bus no. 25. 33 from Sidaoqiao Bus Station and get off at the South Gate of the pass.
2. Rent a car directly. It is the most convenient way.
Ticket of Shanhaiguan Pass
: 60 RMB
07:00-17:30 from April to November
07:30—17:00 from December to March next year